Computer - Components of Computer System

Computer - Components of Computer System , monitor, vdu, cpu central processing, keyboard, mouse, input device, output device, Computer - Components of Computer System

Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) 

Components of Computer SystemThe Central Processing Unit is the brain of computer, without CPU computer is known as dead machine. It is the most important part of computer, without this part computer cannot process any instruction for further result.

The function of CPU is to store temporarily current data and execute programs. The CPU also control  operating of input and outputs.

There are various section in CPU

  1. ALU ( Arithmetic and Logic Unit )
  2. Control Unit ( CU )
  3. Memory Unit ( MU or Register ) 

VDU ( Visual Display Unit )

VDU is visual display unit which is used to display soft copy output on screen. Simply we can say that monitor is also known as VDU (Display Unit). Mostly flat panels are known as the visual display unit. In visual display unit you can see the input given by user through keyboard and actions of mouse pointers to give instruction to computer. There are different kind of VDU available these days
CRT, LCD and LED etc.. are the examples of VDU unit.


Keyboard is widely used input device in CUI (Character User Interface) based operating, at beginning stage of computer.  it is most common, familiar and most important input device. Any user can provide input through keyboard.

Keyboard is similar to electric typewriters. But keyboard has some new keys and other symbols to perform various tasks through keyboard. There are different type of keys on keyboard like alphanumerical buttons, numerical buttons, special keys and etc...


Mouse is an input device that is used to give the command to computer to perform some specific task. Without the help of mouse you can give any command in GUI based operating system. It is a small box with a round ball at the bottom and more than one buttons one ht top. It can be hand held and by moving mouse you can give commands to your computer.

Mouse is also known as direct input device, and it also refereed as the pointing input device. Which is connected with the computer mouse port which is known as peripheral. Actually mouse is made up of plastic and which has shape like a box.

Input / Output Devices

Input devices : Those devices that accept data and instruction from the user or from another computer system (such as a computer on the internet). Examples are keyboard, mouse, joysticks, touch pads, scanners, digital camera, microphones etc.

Output devices : Those devices that return processed data, back to the user or to another computer system. Examples are monitor, printers, speakers etc.

Computer Memory

Memory is like an electronic scratch pad inside the computer. When you launch a program it is loaded into and run from memory. Data used by the program is also loaded into memory for fast access. Common type of memory are RAM(Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read Only Memory)

Which includes both programs and data, is kept while it is being worked on. A Computer memory is known as larger number of memory or storage space where user can keep data for future use.

Concept of Hardware and Software

Hardware:  The physical part that we can touch, feel and see is simply known as hardware. It is just like a mechanical parts of the computer. Like as Mouse, Keyboard, Mouse and etc... are the hardware parts.

Without hardware your computer would not exist and even you can't run any of program. i.e if you don't have motherboard then it is impossible to run computer. Because motherboard is one of the most essential part of computer. It includes all the components used to make the computer. It also includes the cables, connectors and computer peripherals.

Software: Software, simply known as the collection of various programs. The instruction given to the computer in the form of a program is called software. Software is a set of programs, which are used for different purposes. All the software's and programs are used to do specific task in computer. Without software you can not run your computer. i.e Operating System is also a software which helps to navigate your computer, if you don't have operating system impossible to run computer.

Terms used in Computer System


The mechanical devices that make up the computer are called hardware. Hardware is
any part of the computer that you can touch. Hardware consists of interconnected electronic devices
that you can use to control the computer’s operation, input and output.


Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes (also known as programs)
that make the computer perform tasks. In other word, software tells the computer what to do. Some
programs exist primarily for the computer’s use and help the computer perform and manage its own
tasks. Other types of programs exist primarily for the user and enable the computer to perform

Human ware

People who operates the computer is known as human ware or users.


Firmware is a program or information written in ROM permanently by the manufacturer during
the manufacturing of computers.


Data consists of raw facts, which the computer stores and reads in the form of numbers. The
computer manipulates data according to the instructions contained in the software and then
forwards it for use by people or another computer. Data can consists of letters, numbers, sounds or
images however the computer converts it to numbers within the computer, data is organized into

Computer File

A computer file is simply a set of data or program instructions that has been given a name. A file
that the user can open and use is often called a documents.


Programs are the collection of many commands or instructions together in sequence and
in logical way. A program is written for some specific purpose.


It is the collection of data in systematic way, so that it carries specific meaning when presented.

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