Computer - Generations of Computer (One to Fifth) With Features

Computer - Generation of Computer (One to Fifth) With Features, first generation of computer, second generation of computer, third generation of computer, fourth generation of computer, fifth generation of computer, Computer - Generation of Computer (One to Fifth) With Features, Computer - Generation of Computer (One to Fifth) With Features

Generations of ComputerDepending on the device used system architecture processing mode and language in the computers are categorized in the following five generation the development of different types of memory devices has given a sequence\ of development of memory devices has given a sequins of development of computer from mainframe to microprocessor in the development of computers there is lot of change from 1946 to 1990 this time is divided in different generations by scientists in a conference in 1962.

First generations (1946-1954)

Introduction of the UNIVAC in 1951 marked the beginning of the first generation they began to work on the universal automatic computer UNIVAC in 1946 the computer using vacuum tubes as a memory units are known as first generation computers the vacuum tube consumes a lot of power the vacuum tube was developed by lee deforest in 1908.
  1. They used valves or vacuum tubes as their main electronic component 
  2. They were large in size slow in processing and had less storage capacity 
  3. They consumed lots of electricity and produced lost of heat 
  4. Their computing capabilities were limited. 
  5. They were not so accurate and reliable 
  6. They used machine level language for programming 
  7. They were varying expensive. 
  8. Example ENIAC UNIVAC IBM 650 ETC 

Second generations (1955-1964)

The invention of semi-conductor transistor had made big revolution in the field of computer the transistor replace the vacuum tube the second generation computer used transistors as a memory unit a transistor could do the work of 1000 vacuum tubes second generation computer are smaller in size they are more reliable and faster than the first generations computer .
  1. Transistors were used instead of vacuum tube
  2. Processing speed in faster than first generations computer microsecond
  3. Smaller in size (51 square feet) 
  4. The input and output devices were faster 
  5. Example IBM 1400 AND 7000 SERIES CONTROL DATA 36000 ETC.

Third generation (1965 to 1974)

By the development of a small chip consisting of the capacity of the 300 transistors called integrated chip (IC) the computers using ICs are of the third generation they were smaller in size and had higher efficiency in speed & memory capacity very soon ICs were replaced by LSL ( larger scale integration). Which consisted about 100 component an IC containing about 100 components is called LSL.
  1. They used integrated circuit chips in place of the transistors
  2. Semi conductor memory devices were used 
  3. The size was greatly reduced the speed of processing was high they were more accurate and reliable 
  4. Larger scale integration and very large scale integration were also developed 
  5. The mini computers were introduction in this generation. 
  6. Example IBM 360 IBM 370

Fourth Generation (1975 - 1990)

An IC containing about 100 components is called LSI Larger scale integration and the one which has more than 1000 such computer designed using VLSI as a memory unit is know as fourth generation computers the first microprocessor 8008 was developed by amercing company (Intel corporation ) in 1971 and in 1974 another more powerful microprocessor 8080 was developed the microprocessor 8080 was used in early XT computer microprocessor based computer fall in fourth generation computer group vlsi is also called as microprocessor
  1. They used microprocessor (VLSI) as their main switching element 
  2. They are also called as micro computer or personal computers. 
  3. Their size varies from desktop to laptop or palmtop 
  4. They have very high speed of processing they are 100% accurate reliable diligent and versatile 
  5. They have very large storage capacity 

Fifth Generation (1990 to till running)

The fifth generation computers are under development stage these computers are being made suing microprocessor and will use USLI (ultra large scale integration ) chips ( BIO-CHIPS ) In the future such computer will use intelligent programming and improved human machine interface It is estimated that these computer of fifth generation will have and artificial intelligence (AI ) with a little thinking capacity and they will understand the natural language like English japans
  1. They are the future computer which will use parallel processor or genetically engineered bio-chips as their main switching element
  2. They will have artificial intelligence and will be able to understand natural language.
  3. They will have extremely high efficiency and reliability. 

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