Natural Language Processing - Artificial Intelligence

Natural Language Processing - Artificial Intelligence , Component steps of Communication:

Natural Language Processing

Communication is the intentional exchange of information through production and perception of signs drawn from a shared system of conventional signs. Communication is important in partially observable environments where two or more agents work together to achieve a goal.

Speech Act:
Any activity done by the agent to produce language is called speech act. Speech act does not always mean producing sound; it may be any other activity for communication.

Formal Languages:Formal language is defined as a (possibly finite) set of strings; each string is a concatenation of terminal symbols (sometimes called words). Formal languages have strict mathematical definitions. This is in contrast to the natural languages like Nepali, English, and Chinese etc.

A grammar is a finite set of rules that specifies a language. Formal languages always have official grammar but natural language has no official grammar. Linguistics are trying to discover the properties of natural language through scientific inquiry and trying to codify them. The toll to date no linguist is succeeding completely.

Both formal and natural languages have syntax and semantics to each valid string.

Syntax defines the rules for writing sentences.
e.g. in mathematics x+ y is a valid sentence
but xy+ is not a valid sentence.
Semantics defines the meaning of the sentence.
E,g. x + y means the sum of x andy.

In natural language, it is also important to understand the pragmatics of the sentence: the actual meaning of the sentence that is spoken in a situation.

Strings are composed of substrings called phrases.


Here S (sentence) NP ( Noun Phrase) and VP (Verb Phrase) are non-terminal symbols.

Component steps of Communication:

S (speaker) wants to inform H (hearer) about the proposition P. e.g. Speaker wants to inform H that Wumpus is no longer alive.

GenerationSpeaker (S) selects words W to express a proposition (P) in current situation(C) so that it becomes more meaningful to hearer.

Synthesis Speaker makes physical realization W’ of selected word W either by producing sound or by writing in a paper or by any other means.

Perception Hearer perceives physical realization as W2” and decodes it as the word W2. When the medium is speech, percept step is speech recognition, when it is printing; it is called optical character recognition.
Analysis Hearer infers possible meanings P1; : Pn from W2. Analysis step can be divided into three parts: syntactic interpretation, Semantic Interpretation, and, pragmatic interpretation.

Disambiguation:Hearer infers intended meaning Pi that a speaker indented (where ideally Pi=P) Disambiguation process heavily depends upon uncertain reasoning.
Incorporation Hearer incorporates Pi into Knowledge base if it believes to Speaker. A totally naïve agents believes everything that it hears.

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