Computer - Introduction and Characteristics of Computer

Computer - Introduction and Characteristics of Computer, what is computer, define computer, explain computer and features of computer,

Introduction and Characteristics of Computer
Computer is derived from the Latin word ‘Computare’ which means ‘calculate’.


So according to this definition, computer is a machine which can perform calculations at very high speed.

Computer is an electromechanical device that works on command and performs mathematical and logical operations within a short time and with high accuracy.

A computer is programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. 

The following are the part of computer. 
  1. CPU  (Central Processing Unit)  - Processing unit or CPU which give desired output after processing of input. 
  2. VDU ( Visual Display Unit) - Display unit known as monitor it is output unit. It gives soft-copy output which we can not touch. 
  3. MOUSE  - Used to give input to computer. It is input device which have pointer to do movement. 
  4. KEYBOARD - Keyboard is also input device we have to press keys to give instructions to computer. 
  5. PRINTER AND SCANNER - Printer is output device which gives hard-copy output which we can touch. Scanner is input devices through scanner we can give instruction to computer. 

Characteristics of Computer

Computer is the powerful machine. It can perform large number of tasks. The main capacities of computer are work length, speed accuracy, diligence, versatility memory and automation and lots of more tasks.

Speed

The time take to perform any task by computer is called speed of computer as you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. The speed of computer is measured in MIPS (Millions Inch per Seconds)

Units of Time
Meaning in Seconds
Part of Second
In the Power of 10
Milliseconds
In Thousands
1/1000
10-3
Microseconds
In Millions
1/1000000
10-6
Nanoseconds
In Thousands Million
1/1000000000
10-9
Picoseconds
In Million Millionths
1/1000000000000
10-12

Accuracy 

Computer is the accurate machine. It can perform large number of takes without errors but if we feed wrong data to the computer it returns the same wrong output or wrong information. If the computer hardware parts are able to work and given input is correct the computer can give 100% accurate result. The process to giving correct result and wrong result is called GIGO (Garbage In garbage Out).

Diligence 

The capacity of performing repetitive task without getting tired is called diligence capacity of computer. A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error.

Versatility

The capacity of performing more than one work is called versatility of computer. It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips, office work, mathematical calculation, word processing etc.

Storage

Computer has mass storage section where we can store large volume of data for future work. Such data are easily accessible when needed. Magnetic disk, magnetic tape and optical disk are used as the mass storage devices. The storage capacity is measured in terms of KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB etc...

Unit
Equivalent
0 or 1
Binary Bit
4 bits
1 Nibble
8 bits (2 nibble)
1 Byte
1024 Bytes
1 Kilo Bytes
1024 Kilo Bytes
1 Mega Bytes
1024 Mega Bytes
1 Giga Byte
1024 Giga Byte
1 Tera Byte
1024 Tera Byte
1 Peta Byte
1024 Peta Byte
1 Exa Byte
1024 Exa Byte
1 Yotta Byte

Automatic

Once we give the appropriate instruction, a computer can perform the operations automatically. Like
computer can do addition, subtraction, division and multiplication etc. Computer can automatically compare values also. It also does copying value from one memory location to other locations.

Power of Remembering 

Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.

Word Length

A digital computer operates on binary digits-0 and 1. It manipulate data only in terms of 0 and 1. A binary digit is called a bit. The number of bits that computer can process at a time in parallel is called its word length. Word lengths computer are varies such as 8, 16, 32, 64 bits. It is the measurement of the computing power of computer.

Processing

Computer can process large volume of data in great speed. There are different types of operation during processing such as input / output operation logic operation comparison operation text manipulation operation.

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